Motives of United States and Japanese professional baseball consumers and level of team identification

Jeffrey D. James*, Junya Fujimoto, Stephen D. Ross, Hirotaka Matsuoka

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Consumer motives and level of identification with professional baseball teams in the United States and Japan were measured and compared. Significant differences were found on nine of the ten motives measured. Entertainment and motives associated with the core product (game aesthetics, players' skills, and the drama of games) were rated the highest by consumers in the United States. Entertainment and the opportunity to enjoy games with family and friends were rated highest by Japanese consumers. A significant difference was found relative to team identification; the highest percentage of Japanese baseball consumers had low team identification, while the largest percentage of United States baseball consumers reported high levels of team identification. Sport organisations seeking to reach a global audience are advised to better understand the motives influencing consumption of a sport product across cultures, and the degree to which a consumer may identify with a particular product.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)351-366
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Sport Management and Marketing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Baseball
  • Japan
  • Motives
  • Team identification
  • United States

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Strategy and Management
  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Marketing


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