MPML3D: Scripting agents for the 3D internet

Helmut Prendinger*, Sebastian Ullrich, Arturo Nakasone, Mitsuru Ishizuka

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, it describes a scripting language for specifying communicative behavior and interaction of computer-controlled agents ("bots") in the popular three-dimensional (3D) multiuser online world of "Second Life" and the emerging "OpenSimulator" project. While tools for designing avatars and in-world objects in Second Life exist, technology for nonprogrammer content creators of scenarios involving scripted agents is currently missing. Therefore, we have implemented new client software that controls bots based on the Multimodal Presentation Markup Language 3D (MPML3D), a highly expressive XML-based scripting language for controlling the verbal and nonverbal behavior of interacting animated agents. Second, the paper compares Second Life and OpenSimulator platforms and discusses the merits and limitations of each from the perspective of agent control. Here, we also conducted a small study that compares the network performance of both platforms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5467067
Pages (from-to)655-668
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • and virtual realities
  • Artificial
  • augmented
  • graphical user interfaces
  • markup languages
  • scripting languages
  • synchronous interaction
  • visualization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Software
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Signal Processing


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