Multipurpose Charging Schedule Optimization Method for Electric Buses: Evaluation Using Real City Data

Yuki Tomizawa*, Yuto Ihara, Yasuhiro Kodama, Yutaka Iino, Yasuhiro Hayashi, Ohsei Ikeda, Jun Yoshinaga

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The use of electric vehicles (EVs) and photovoltaics (PV) is increasing worldwide. Transportation networks require the effective use of renewable energy (RE) for EVs, whereas power networks require local consumption of PV energy, mainly at the initiative of local governments. Although many previous studies have addressed these requirements using private EVs as mobile storages, their uncertainty and uncontrollability remain highly problematic. Therefore, our previous studies focused on electric buses because of their high controllability and certainty. These studies involved the development and evaluation of two independent minimization problems - kilowatts (KW) and kilowatt-hours (KWH) of surplus RE - as a charging schedule optimization method using mixed integer linear programming. However, the feasibility of simultaneously minimizing KW and KWH still presented technical problems. This study aims to extend and generalize the method to the simultaneous minimization of KW and KWH of the PV-derived reverse power flow (RPF). With this multiobjective optimization, the KW peak-cut of the RPF improves the hosting capacity and increases the availability of connectable RE resources, whereas the minimization of KWH promotes the local consumption of RE and decarbonization of public transportation. Two simulations using detailed data of actual bus operations and actual power flow data for a real city confirmed the feasibility of simultaneously optimizing KW and KWH and the relationship between these indicators and number of EV chargers. The optimized charging of the 17 electric buses achieved a maximum of 211.4 kW peak-cut and 1318.4 kWh RE-RPF absorption, reducing CO2 emissions by 495.7 kg/day.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56067-56080
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Charging control
  • Electric bus
  • Mixed integer linear programming
  • Multiobjective optimization
  • Photovoltaic
  • Reverse power flow
  • Sector coupling
  • Smart city

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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