Nanoscale Clustering and Magnetic Properties of MnxFe3−xO4 Particles Prepared from Natural Magnetite

Ahmad Taufiq, Sunaryono, Edy Giri Rachman Putra, Atsushi Okazawa, Isao Watanabe, Norimichi Kojima, Suminar Pratapa, Darminto*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Citations (Scopus)


A series of MnxFe3−xO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) nanoparticles was successfully synthesized via a simple coprecipitation method. The starting material was a natural magnetite purified from local iron sand. Crystallite nanoparticles were produced by drying without using a high calcination temperature. Rietveld analysis of the X-ray diffractometry (XRD) data for all samples demonstrated that the Mn ions partially substituted the Fe ions in the spinel cubic structure of the Fe3O4 to form MnxFe3−xO4 phases. We applied two lognormal spherical and single mass fractal models to the analysis of the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data and revealed that the primary MnxFe3−xO4 particles ranged in size from 1.5 to 3.8 nm and formed three-dimensional clusters as secondary structures. The samples displayed superparamagnetic behavior, having the saturation magnetization which was most likely influenced by the competing contribution from Mn, the sizes of the primary particles, and their clusters. Further analysis revealed that the zero-field-cooled and field-cooled curves of the MnxFe3−xO4 nanoclusters exhibited a superparamagnetic phenomenon with the lowest magnetic blocking temperature approximately 145 K.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2855-2863
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Sept 8
Externally publishedYes


  • Blocking temperature
  • Coprecipitation
  • MnFeO
  • Nanoclusters
  • Natural magnetite
  • Saturation magnetization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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