Nanostructured interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) precursor ultrathin films

Paralee Waenkaew, Prasad Taranekar, Guoqian Jiang, Cheng Yu Huang, Timothy Fulghum, Derek Patton, Lalithya Jayarathna, Sukon Phanichphant, Rigoberto C. Advincula

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The formation of a nanostructured interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) via electropolymerization is described. The electro-copolymerization of alternate layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembled polyelectrolytes with thiophene and carbazole pendant monomers was demonstrated facilitating IPN formation of π-conjugated polymers or conjugated polymer network (CPN) films. UV-Vis spectroscopy, QCM, and ellipsometry confirmed linear nanostructured LbL film growth. Electrochemical crosslinking by cyclic voltammetry (CV) manifested highly regular peak current increases with successive cycles. A quantitative correlation of the LbL layer number with the cathodic charge and scan rate was observed. Electrochemical impedance analysis confirmed CPN film formation and the change in capacitance behavior. The electropolymerization of a nanostructured layer-by-layer (LbL) film enables interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) formation in a very quantitative manner. Oppositely charged polyelectrolyte precursors facilitate formation of IPN of π-conjugated polymers or simply conjugated polymer network (CPN) films by electropolymerization. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, QCM, ellipsometry, EIS, and AFM are used to characterize the films.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1039-1049
Number of pages11
JournalMacromolecular Chemistry and Physics
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2011 May 17
Externally publishedYes


  • AFM
  • conjugated polymers
  • copolymerization
  • cyclic voltammetry
  • electropolymerization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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