No effect of 24 h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in overweight and obese males

D. J. Clayton, M. Creese, N. Skidmore, D. J. Stensel, L. J. James*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Background/Objectives: Long-term success of weight loss diets might depend on how the appetite regulatory system responds to energy restriction (ER). This study determined the effect of 24 h severe ER on subjective and hormonal appetite regulation, subsequent ad libitum energy intake and metabolism.Subjects/Methods: In randomised order, eight overweight or obese males consumed a 24 h diet containing either 100% (12105 (1174 kJ; energy balance; EB) or 25% (3039 (295) kJ; ER) of estimated daily energy requirements (EER). An individualised standard breakfast containing 25% of EER (3216 (341) kJ) was consumed the following morning and resting energy expenditure, substrate utilisation and plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 7-36), glucose-dependant insulinotropic peptide (GIP 1-42), glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were determined for 4 h after breakfast. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed in the laboratory on day 2 and via food records on day 3. Subjective appetite was assessed throughout. Results: Energy intake was not different between trials for day 2 (EB: 14946 (1272) kJ; ER: 15251 (2114) kJ; P=0.623), day 3 (EB: 10580 (2457) kJ; 10812 (4357) kJ; P=0.832) or day 2 and 3 combined (P=0.693). Subjective appetite was increased during ER on day 1 (P<0.01), but was not different between trials on day 2 (P>0.381). Acylated ghrelin, GLP-1 7-36 and insulin were not different between trials (P>0.104). Post-breakfast area under the curve (AUC) for NEFA (P<0.05) and GIP 1-42 (P<0.01) were greater during ER compared with EB. Fat oxidation was greater (P<0.01) and carbohydrate oxidation was lower (P<0.01) during ER, but energy expenditure was not different between trials (P=0.158). Conclusions: These results suggest that 24 h severe ER does not affect appetite regulation or energy intake in the subsequent 48 h. This style of dieting may be conducive to maintenance of a negative EB by limiting compensatory eating behaviour, and therefore may assist with weight loss.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1662-1670
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Nov 1
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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