NRPSs and amide ligases producing homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s

Yoshimitsu Hamano*, Toshinobu Arai, Makoto Ashiuchi, Kuniki Kino

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Covering: 1943 to 2013 Microorganisms are capable of producing a wide variety of biopolymers. Homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s, which are made up of only a single type of amino acid, are relatively rare; in fact, only two homopoly(amino acid)s have been known to occur in nature: poly(ε-l-lysine) (ε-PL) and poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA). Bacterial enzymes that produce homooligo(amino acid)s, such as l-β-lysine-, l-valine-, l-leucine-, l-isoleucine-, l-methionine-, and l-glutamic acid-oligopeptides and poly(α-l-glutamic acid) (α-PGA) have recently been identified, as well as ε-PL synthetase and γ-PGA synthetase. This article reviews the current knowledge about these unique enzymes producing homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1087-1097
Number of pages11
JournalNatural Product Reports
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry


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