Nucleation of W during chemical vapor deposition from WF6 and SiH4

Yuya Kajikawa*, Takeshi Tsumura, Suguru Noda, Hiroshi Komiyama, Yukihiro Shimogaki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


A gas mixture of tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) and silane (SiH4) is generally used to form the initial layer of tungsten (W) on titanium nitride (TiN). However, the nucleation mechanism is still not clear, thus making it difficult to optimize such processes for complete filling of via holes. Therefore, in this study, we examined the nucleation process by laser-reflection measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These measurements indicate that W nucleation has two stages: monolayer formation followed by nucleation of three-dimensional (3D) islands. The monolayer formation can be expressed as Langmuir-type adsorption, and proceeds with the reduction of WF6 by Ti on TiN substrates. After monolayer formation, nucleation of 3D islands occurs and islands rapidly grow. These processes were quantitatively modeled using a simple rate equation. The results of our model agree well with our measurements of the deposited amount and coverage of islands.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3945-3950
Number of pages6
JournalJapanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1: Regular Papers and Short Notes and Review Papers
Issue number6 B
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Jun
Externally publishedYes


  • Chemical vapor deposition
  • Modeling
  • Nucleation and growth
  • Silane
  • Tungsten
  • Tungsten hexafluoride

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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