Numerical simulation of magnetic bead chains in a magnetic field using 3-D distinct element method

Nobuyuki Nakayama*, Hiroyuki Kawamoto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Formation of magnetic bead chains in a magnetic field was numerically simulated with the Distinct Element Method in order to apply for improvements of a magnetic brush development system in electrophotography. Simulated chain configurations, length and slant angle, and dynamic chain forming process were compared to the experimental results. The 2-D calculation could not simulate quantitatively well the chain configurations and the process, because the magnetic interaction between beads was under estimated due to the neglect of the interaction force between three-dimensionally distributed beads. On the other hand, 3-D calculation showed good agreement with experiments and it is concluded that 3-D calculation is indispensable for the quantitative evaluation. It was also confirmed that chain configurations were determined approximately to minimize its total potential energy given by the sum of magnetic energy and gravitational energy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)804-811
Number of pages8
JournalNippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu, C Hen/Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Part C
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Mar
Externally publishedYes


  • Distinct Element Method
  • Information Processing Equipment
  • Laser Printer
  • Magnetic Brush Development
  • Numerical Analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering


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