Offshore Sourcing: Reaction, Maturation, and Consolidation of U.S. Multinationals

Masaaki Kotabe, K. Scott Swan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

84 Citations (Scopus)


The authors conducted a quasi-longitudinal investigation of U.S. multinationals' R&D, manufacturing, offshore sourcing strategies, and resultant global market performance implications, utilizing comprehensive data collected by the 1977, 1982 and 1989 benchmark surveys of U.S. direct investment abroad. Hypotheses were tested in a path analytic framework. Despite increased competition at home and abroad causing their global market share positions to weaken in recent years, U.S. multinationals have maintained, and even may have improved, their global consolidated profitability levels by skillfully exploiting their technological prowess through technology transfer and off-shore sourcing. Rapidly changing roles of U.S. parent firms and their foreign affiliates in technology development and global sourcing relationships portend a maturing, yet arduous, shift toward a global rationalization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-140
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of International Business Studies
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1994 Mar 1
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Business, Management and Accounting(all)
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Strategy and Management
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


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