On the learnability of quantum state fidelity

Norhan Elsayed Amer*, Walid Gomaa, Keiji Kimura, Kazunori Ueda, Ahmed El-Mahdy

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Current quantum processing technology is generally noisy with a limited number of qubits, stressing the importance of quantum state fidelity estimation. The complexity of this problem is mainly due to not only accounting for single gates and readout errors but also for interactions among which. Existing methods generally rely on either reconstructing the given circuit state, ideal state, and computing the distance of which; or forcing the system to be on a specific state. Both rely on conducting circuit measurements, in which computational efficiency is traded off with obtained fidelity details, requiring an exponential number of experiments for full information. This paper poses the question: Is the mapping between a given quantum circuit and its state fidelity learnable? If learnable, this would be a step towards an alternative approach that relies on machine learning, providing much more efficient computation. To answer this question, we propose three deep learning models for 1-, 3-, and 5-qubit circuits and experiment on the following real-quantum processors: ibmq_armonk (1-qubit), ibmq_lima (5-qubit) and ibmq_quito (5-qubit) backends, respectively. Our models achieved a mean correlation factor of 0.74, 0.67 and 0.66 for 1-, 3-, and 5-qubit random circuits, respectively, with the exponential state tomography method. Additionally, our 5-qubit model outperforms simple baseline state fidelity estimation method on three quantum benchmarks. Our method, trained on random circuits only, achieved a mean correlation factor of 0.968 while the baseline method achieved 0.738. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of dynamic noise on state fidelity estimation. The correlation factor substantially improved to 0.82 and 0.74 for the 3- and 5-qubit models, respectively. The results show that machine learning is promising for predicting state fidelity from circuit representation and this work may be considered a step towards efficient end-to-end learning.

Original languageEnglish
Article number31
JournalEPJ Quantum Technology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec


  • Classical optimization
  • Convolutional neural network
  • Fidelity estimation
  • Noise characterization
  • Quantum circuit
  • Quantum computing
  • State tomography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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