Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Microgrid for Rural Agricultural Area in Southern Philippines

Rovick Tarife*, Yosuke Nakanishi, Yining Chen, Yicheng Zhou, Noel Estoperez, Anacita Tahud

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Microgrids, or distributed systems of local energy generation, transmission, and demand, are now technologically and operationally capable of providing power to communities, especially in rural and peri-urban regions of developing nations. The reliability of the system, the cost of power generation, and the operating environmental impact are the major issues when designing and evaluating the performance of an off-grid hybrid renewable energy microgrid (HREM). This paper presents an integrated method for optimal sizing and operation of an HREM for rural agricultural communities in the Southern Philippines composed of run-of-the-river hydropower, photovoltaics (PV), diesel generator, and a battery energy storage system (BESS) using multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) and a proposed multi-case power management strategy. The three conflicting objective functions that were simultaneously minimized were: loss of power supply probability (LPSP), levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, subject to several constraints. The optimization generated 200 non-dominated or Pareto optimal alternative solutions, 4 of which were selected as solutions of interest. Based on the results, the optimal sizes of the main components for the reliable operation of the system are 100 panels with a rating of 0.25 kW for PV, 100 kWh for BESS, and 13 kW for the diesel generator, with corresponding LCOE, LPSP, and GHG emission values of 0.1795 USD/kWh, 0.05%, and 7874 kg, respectively, for 1 year. The effectiveness of the proposed HREM design was also analyzed, and the study yielded plenty of useful findings that could aid the electrification of the area.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2251
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar 1


  • hybrid microgrid
  • operation optimization
  • renewable energy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Fuel Technology
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Control and Optimization
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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