Parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators for quadrature amplitude modulation

Tetsuya Kawanishi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


This paper describes optical quadrature amplitude modulation techniques using parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs). Arbitrary constellations of optical signals can be generated by using a dual-parallel MZM which can independently control real and imaginary components of lightwaves, where each MZM should be driven by multi-level electric signals. Many parallel MZMs, such as quad-parallel MZMs, octet-parallel MZMs can synthesize optical multi-level signals from binary data stream generated by electronics designed for binary modulation formats. We also investigate characterization methods of parallel MZMs. Precise measurement of half-wave voltage, extinction ratio and chirp parameter of each MZM element can be achieved by using optical spectrum analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1678-1688
Number of pages11
Journalieice electronics express
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Modulation format
  • Optical modulation
  • Optical waveguide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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