Partial smoking ban and secondhand smoke exposure in Japan

Sen Zeng, Haruko Noguchi, Satoru Shimokawa*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Implementing smoking bans is a worldwide common practice for tobacco control. However, if the policy prohibits smoking partially rather than comprehensively, it may increase nonsmokers’ exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in nonprohibited places. This paper investigates how a partial smoking ban affected nonsmokers’ SHS exposure (measured by frequency of having exposure to SHS in days per month) in households, workplaces, and restaurants by examining the case of a partial smoking ban introduced in a large Japanese prefecture in 2013. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) in 2010, 2013, and 2016 (n = 30,244) and the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions (CSLC) from 2001 to 2016 (n = 2,366,896), this paper employs a difference-in-differences (DID) approach. We found that the partial smoking ban significantly increased their SHS exposure in households and workplaces by 2.64 days and 4.70 days per month, respectively, while it did not change nonsmokers’ SHS exposure in restaurants. The results imply that the smoking ban displaced smokers from public places to private places. We also found that neither smokers’ smoking status nor smoking intensity changed significantly after implementing the partial smoking ban. Comprehensive smoking bans are needed to better protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2804
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Aug


  • Difference-in-differences
  • Japan
  • Partial smoking ban
  • Secondhand smoke exposure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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