Partially converted stereoscopic images and the effects on visual attention and memory

Sanghyun Kim*, Hiroyuki Morikawa, Reiko Mitsuya, Takashi Kawai, Katsumi Watanabe

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)


This study contained two experimental examinations of the cognitive activities such as visual attention and memory in viewing stereoscopic (3D) images. For this study, partially converted 3D images were used with binocular parallax added to a specific region of the image. In Experiment 1, change blindness was used as a presented stimulus. The visual attention and impact on memory were investigated by measuring the response time to accomplish the given task. In the change blindness task, an 80 ms blank was intersected between the original and altered images, and the two images were presented alternatingly for 240 ms each. Subjects were asked to temporarily memorize the two switching images and to compare them, visually recognizing the difference between the two. The stimuli for four conditions (2D, 3D, Partially converted 3D, distracted partially converted 3D) were randomly displayed for 20 subjects. The results of Experiment 1 showed that partially converted 3D images tend to attract visual attention and are prone to remain in viewer's memory in the area where moderate negative parallax has been added. In order to examine the impact of a dynamic binocular disparity on partially converted 3D images, an evaluation experiment was conducted that applied learning, distraction, and recognition tasks for 33 subjects. The learning task involved memorizing the location of cells in a 5 × 5 matrix pattern using two different colors. Two cells were positioned with alternating colors, and one of the gray cells was moved up, down, left, or right by one cell width. Experimental conditions was set as a partially converted 3D condition in which a gray cell moved diagonally for a certain period of time with a dynamic binocular disparity added, a 3D condition in which binocular disparity was added to all gray cells, and a 2D condition. The correct response rates for recognition of each task after the distraction task were compared. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the correct response rate in the partial 3D condition was significantly higher with the recognition task than in the other conditions. These results showed that partially converted 3D images tended to have a visual attraction and affect viewer's memory.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE-IS and T Electronic Imaging - Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXVI
EditorsNicolas S. Holliman, Takashi Kawai, Andrew J. Woods, Gregg E. Favalora
ISBN (Electronic)9781628414813
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Event2015 26th Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference, SD and A 2015 - San Francisco, United States
Duration: 2015 Feb 92015 Feb 11

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


Other2015 26th Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference, SD and A 2015
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco


  • 2D3D conversion
  • Change blindness
  • Memory
  • Recognition
  • Stereoscopic image
  • Visual attention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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