The phase angle (PhA), measured via bioelectrical impedance analysis, is considered an indicator of cellular health, where higher values reflect higher cellularity, cell membrane integrity, and better cell function. This study aimed to examine the relationship between PhA and exercise habits or objectively measured physical activity. We included 115 people aged 32–69 years. The body composition and PhA were measured using a bioelectrical impedance device. Physical activity and sedentary behavior (SB) were assessed using a triaxial accelerometer. Exercise habits were also obtained through structured interviews, and participants were categorized into the no exercise habit (No-Ex), resistance training exercise habit (RT), or aerobic training exercise habit (AT) groups. Objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity or step count significantly correlated with PhA, independent of age, sex, height, percent body fat, body cell mass, and leg muscle power. In contrast, SB was not significant determinants of PhA. People who exercised regularly (RT or AT) had significantly higher PhA values than did those in the No-Ex group. Furthermore, the PhA was not significantly different between the RT and AT groups. Regularly engaging in exercise with moderate-to-vigorous intensity may improve or maintain muscle cellular health and muscle quality.
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