Photoactive layer formation in the dark for high performance of air-processable organic photovoltaics

Akihiro Maeda, Ruiyuan Liu, Kilho Yu, Shinyoung Lee, Kyohei Nakano, Masahito Takakuwa, Shipei Zhang, Keisuke Tajima, Kenjiro Fukuda*, Shinjiro Umezu*, Takao Someya*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Recent progress in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) has led to an increased importance of laboratory-scale fabrication in ambient air using solution processes. However, the effect of the existence of both ambient air and light during the formation of a photoactive layer on the performance of fabricated devices has not been elucidated thus far in detail. Here, we show that photoactive layer formation in completely dark conditions enables air-processable OPVs with a high power conversion efficiency. The degradation in OPV performance caused by the coexistence of air and room light was confirmed by systematically examining atmospheric and room-light irradiation conditions during the formation and drying of the photoactive layer. Moreover, the degradation rate was much faster than that in the case of dried solid photoactive layers exposed to room light in ambient air. The photoactive layer with non-fullerene acceptors showed a much slower degradation rate, owing to room light, than that with fullerene acceptors. Based on these findings, we demonstrate that by eliminating light during formation, slot-die-coated OPVs in ambient air show comparable performance to that of spin-coated OPVs in an inert glovebox.

Original languageEnglish
Article number044016
JournalJPhys Materials
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Oct


  • Air processability
  • Non-fullerene acceptor
  • Organic photovoltaics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Materials Science(all)


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