We devised a method, named as scanned electrospinning technique, to form a variety of one-dimensional polymeric nanostructures. It is a straightforward technique that enables the rapid fabrication of oriented polymeric nanowires as well as their integration with lithographically defined and micromachined surfaces. As a result, these orientated polymeric nanowires can be used as building blocks for nanodevices. Using this method we have made and tested a prototype of high-speed single polymeric nanowire chemical detector that is capable of sensing ultra low concentrations of ammonia gas, with rapid and reversible resistance change. As an example of the nanomechanical resonator, mechanical oscillations of individual suspended silica fibers were measured, with a resonant frequency of 10.8 MHz and a mechanical quality factor of 1600. The general approach represents a significant step toward realizing the potential of organized self-assembled nanostructures in nanoscale device architectures.