Positive-negative dual-tone sensitivities of ZEP resist

Tomoko Gowa Oyama*, Hirotaka Nakamura, Akihiro Oshima, Masakazu Washio, Seiichi Tagawa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


A chlorinated resist named ZEP changes from positive- to negative-tone with a high dose of electron beam irradiation. The sensitivities to a 100-kV electron beam as a dual positive- and negative-tone resist are evaluated with various developers. Although the positive-tone sensitivity varies with different developers owing to different solvation strengths, the threshold dose for the positive-negative (P-N) inversion is independent of the developer. According to an analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy, the amount of chlorine atoms and terminal double bonds generated by chain scission determines the scission/crosslinking probabilities, i.e., the threshold of the P-N inversion.

Original languageEnglish
Article number036501
JournalApplied Physics Express
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Mar

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Positive-negative dual-tone sensitivities of ZEP resist'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this