Posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic depreciation (PTD) across ten countries: Global validation of the PTG-PTD theoretical model

Kanako Taku*, Richard G. Tedeschi, Jane Shakespeare-Finch, Daniel Krosch, Georgina David, Doris Kehl, Selina Grunwald, Annunziata Romeo, Marialaura Di Tella, Kiyoko Kamibeppu, Takafumi Soejima, Kohichi Hiraki, Rebekah Volgin, Sandesh Dhakal, Mariusz Zięba, Catarina Ramos, Romina Nunes, Isabel Leal, Patrícia Gouveia, Carolina C. SilvaPamela Núñez Del Prado Chaves, Claudia Zavala, Andrea Paz, Emre Senol-Durak, Atsushi Oshio, Amy Canevello, Arnie Cann, Lawrence G. Calhoun

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


This study examined the relationships between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic depreciation (PTD) across 10 countries and assessed the factorial invariance of the standardized inventory assessing PTG and PTD, the PTGDI-X, the expansion of the PTGI-X (Tedeschi et al., 2017). We also investigated the roles of social and cognitive factors in PTG and PTD. Data were collected from participants who identified that their most stressful life experience met the definition of trauma in Australia, Germany, Italy, Japan, Nepal, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Turkey, and the US. The participants completed the PTGDI-X and inventories measuring posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and predictor variables such as reexamination of core beliefs, centrality of the event, rumination, and disclosures. Results identified universal aspects such as equivalence of factor loadings of the PTGDI-X and the impact of positive/negative disclosure on PTG and PTD. Results also revealed culture-specific aspects, including the relationships between PTG and PTD, and different patterns of cognitive predictors for PTG and PTD. The current study offered the insight that, for the first time using international data, positive and negative post-trauma changes are not likely to be on opposing ends of one dimension, and it is essential to use the PTGDI-X to better understand both positive and negative aspects of post-traumatic experiences.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110222
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Feb 1


  • Core beliefs
  • Culture
  • Disclosure
  • Event centrality
  • Posttraumatic depreciation
  • Posttraumatic growth
  • Rumination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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