Precipitation profile and dryout concentration of sea-water pool-boiling in 5 × 5 bundle geometry

Masahiro Furuya*, Riichiro Okawa, Takahiro Arai, Hiroki Takiguchi, Kenetsu Shirakawa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


As an accident management procedure of light water (nuclear) reactors which are situated along sea shore, sea water will be injected into the reactor pressure vessel to flood the nuclear fuel which is heated by residual heat. Another salt water is borated water, which will be injected into the reactor core as a neutron absorber to avoid recriticality. Precipitation behavior of such salt water including these mixtures is a key to gain the confidence of accident strategy to cool down the reactor core during accidental conditions. Pool boiling experiments were conducted with a simulated 5 × 5 fuel-rod bundle with condensed (two and half times denser) sea water and a mixture solution of sea water and borated water. Three-dimensional salt-precipitation distributions in the rod bundles were quantified with X-ray CT system. For both solutions, salt precipitated downstream and close to the top of active fuel (TAF) height where the void fraction is the highest. The condensed sea water yields wider precipitation region in height direction than mixture solution does. Mixture solution may give localized precipitates at the same height, which is just below TAF and uniformly spread on the horizontal plane. For both solutions, dryout concentration is larger as collapsed solution level is higher. This is because that lower collapsed solution level gives longer boiling-length and higher void-fraction, which results in larger amount of salt precipitations. The proposed salt concentration is useful to evaluate dryout concentration, which is the almost constant salt concentration for heat flux levels within the experimental ranges.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-45
Number of pages8
JournalNuclear Engineering and Design
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan
Externally publishedYes


  • BWR fuel bundle
  • Borated water
  • Dryout
  • Pool boiling
  • Precipitation
  • Sea water
  • Severe accident
  • X-ray CT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Mechanical Engineering


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