Prediction of fluid forces acting on a hand model in unsteady flow conditions

Shigetada Kudo*, Toshimasa Yanai, Barry Wilson, Hideki Takagi, Ross Vennell

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to develop a method to predict fluid forces acting on the human hand in unsteady flow swimming conditions. A mechanical system consisting of a pulley and chain mechanism and load cell was constructed to rotate a hand model in fluid flows. To measure the angular displacement of the hand model a potentiometer was attached to the axis of the rotation. The hand model was then fixed at various angles about the longitudinal axis of the hand model and rotated at different flow velocities in a swimming flume for 258 different trials to approximate a swimmer's stroke in unsteady flow conditions. Pressures were taken from 12 transducers embedded in the hand model at a sampling frequency of 200 Hz. The resultant fluid force acting on the hand model was then determined on the basis of the kinetic and kinematic data taken from the mechanical system at the frequency of 200 Hz. A stepwise regression analysis was applied to acquire higher order polynomial equations that predict the fluid force acting on the accelerating hand model from the 12 pressure values. The root mean square (RMS) difference between the resultant fluid force measured and that predicted from the single best-fit polynomial equation across all trials was 5 N. The method developed in the present study accurately predicted the fluid forces acting on the hand model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1131-1136
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Acceleration
  • Dynamic pressure
  • Regression analysis
  • Swimming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Rehabilitation


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