Prevalence of bipolar disorder in panic disorder patients in the Japanese population

Nagisa Sugaya, Eiji Yoshida, Shin Yasuda, Mamoru Tochigi, Kunio Takei, Toshiyuki Otani, Takeshi Otowa, Takanobu Minato, Tadashi Umekage, Yoshiaki Konishi, Yuji Sakano, Junwen Chen, Shinobu Nomura, Yuji Okazaki, Hisanobu Kaiya, Tsukasa Sasaki*, Hisashi Tanii

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    10 Citations (Scopus)


    Background: We examined the rate of bipolar I (BPD-I) and bipolar II disorders (BPD-II) in panic disorder (PD) patients, and compared clinical and psychological variables between PD patients with and without bipolar disorders (BPD). Methods: Participants were 649 Japanese patients with PD (215 men and 434 women, 38.49±10.40 years) at outpatient clinics for anxiety disorders. Constructive interviews using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) were conducted to confirm the diagnosis of PD, agoraphobia, and BPD, as well as the presence and severity of suicide risk in each subject. Clinical records were also reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of PD and BPD. Participants then completed several questionnaires, including the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait scale, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, and the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion- Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Results: We found that 22.34% of the PD patients had BPD (BPD-I: 5.24%, BPD-II: 17.10%). PD patients with BPD-I showed higher prevalence and severity of suicide risk, trait anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and neuroticism, and lower agreeableness (subscales of the NEO-PI-R) than those with BPD-II and those without BPD. Limitation: First, we could not investigate the order of the onset of PD and BPD. Second, BPD patients without PD were not studied as another control group for PD patients with BPD. Conclusion: PD patients had high prevalence of BPD. Both PD patients with BPD-I and those with BPD-II had high severity of suicide risk, trait anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, neuroticism, and agreeableness, though these characteristics were more prominent in patients with BPD-I.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)411-415
    Number of pages5
    JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
    Issue number1-3
    Publication statusPublished - 2013 May


    • Anxiety sensitivity
    • Bipolar disorder
    • Panic disorder
    • Personality
    • Suicide risk

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Psychiatry and Mental health
    • Clinical Psychology


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