High scores on Harm Avoidance (HA) on Cloniger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) have been identified as a risk factor for depression. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) has been found effective in preventing depression and improving depressive symptoms among university students. However, no randomized controlled trials of GCBT have been conducted with university students with high HA. Although we initiated a randomized controlled trial in this study, some participants submitted incomplete questionnaires at baseline interfering with assured randomization; therefore, we report this study as a non-randomized controlled trial. We evaluated whether a GCBT intervention would be effective at reducing HA and, thereby, preventing depression in university students with high HA. We performed final analysis of data on 59 participants in the intervention group and 60 in a control group. We used scores on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) as the primary outcome measure and analysis of covariance to assess group differences on mean BDI-II change scores before the intervention and at six months and one year after the intervention. The intervention group had lower BDI-II scores than the control group at six months after the intervention. GCBT may have facilitated cognitive modification in individuals with high HA, or GCBT may have fostered mutual modeling by group participants. Thus, GCBT may contribute to reducing depressive symptoms in university students with high HA, and associated risk for developing depression.
- group cognitive-behavioral therapy
- harm avoidance
- temperament and character inventory
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Sensory Systems