Proposition of an outflow boundary approach for carotid artery stenosis CFD simulation

Yu Zhang, Toyoki Furusawa, Sheau Fung Sia, Mitsuo Umezu, Yi Qian*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to propose an innovative approach of setting outlet boundary conditions for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of human common carotid arteries (CCAs) bifurcation based on the concept of energy loss minimisation at flow bifurcation. Comparisons between this new approach and previously reported boundary conditions were also made. The results showed that CFD simulation based on the proposed boundary conditions gave an accurate prediction of the critical stenosis ratio of carotid arteries (at around 65%). Other boundary conditions, such as the constant external pressure (P = 0) and constant outflow ratio, either overestimated or underestimated the critical stenosis ratio of carotid arteries. The patient-specific simulation results furthermore indicated that the calculated internal carotid artery flow ratio at CCA bifurcation (61%) coincided with the result obtained by clinical measurements through the use of Colour Doppler ultrasound.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)488-494
Number of pages7
JournalComputer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2013 May
Externally publishedYes


  • carotid artery stenosis
  • cerebralvascular flows
  • computational fluid dynamics
  • energy loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications


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