Proton Logic Gate Based on a Gramicidin-ATP Synthase Integrated Biotransducer

Yukun Chen, Gábor Méhes, Bingfu Liu, Liyun Gao, Mingyin Cui, Chenliang Lin, Yoko Hirono-Hara, Kiyotaka Y. Hara, Noriyo Mitome, Takeo Miyake*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Ion channels are membrane proteins that allow ionic signals to pass through channel pores for biofunctional modulations. However, biodevices that integrate bidirectional biological signal transmission between a device and biological converter through supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) while simultaneously controlling the process are lacking. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to develop a hybrid biotransducer composed of ATP synthase and proton channel gramicidin A (gA), controlled by a sulfonated polyaniline (SPA) conducting polymer layer deposited on a microelectrode, and to simulate a model circuit for this system. We controlled proton transport across the gA channel using both electrical and chemical input signals by applying voltage to the SPA or introducing calcium ions (inhibitor) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid molecules (inhibitor remover). The insertion of gA and ATP synthase into SLBs on microelectrodes resulted in an integrated biotransducer, in which the proton current was controlled by the flux of adenosine diphosphate molecules and calcium ions. Lastly, we created an XOR logic gate as an enzymatic logic system where the output proton current was controlled by Input A (ATP synthase) and Input B (calcium ions), making use of the unidirectional and bidirectional transmission of protons in ATP synthase and gA, respectively. We combined gA, ATP synthase, and SPA as a hybrid bioiontronics system to control bidirectional or unidirectional ion transport across SLBs in biotransducers. Thus, our findings are potentially relevant for a range of advanced biological and medical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7480-7488
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Feb 14


  • ATP synthase
  • biotransducer
  • gramicidin A
  • logic gate
  • supported lipid bilayers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science


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