Ranking and Rating: Neglected Biases in Factor Analysis of Postmaterialist Values

Airo Hino*, Ryosuke Imai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


The pros and cons of ranking and rating scales have been much discussed. It is widely accepted that factor analysis based on ranking scales suffers from a negativity bias, while that based on rating scales in turn suffers from a positivity bias. Recent decades have witnessed an increasing sophistication in techniques of neutralizing these biases in factor analysis. Using data from an experimental survey of postmaterialist values conducted in Japan, we applied these techniques and compared the dimensions extracted using ranking and rating scales. The results suggest that the postmaterialist and materialist dimensions are in fact positively correlated, in contrast to the common view that they are opposed to each other. Implications for postmaterialist theory are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)368-381
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Public Opinion Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science


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