Realization of consonant sounds and continuous sounds using a talking robot

Kazufumi Nishikawa*, Akihiro Imai, Takayuki Ogawara, Hideaki Takanobu, Takemi Mochida, Atsuo Takanishi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper describes the mechanical design and the speech planning of an anthropomorphic talking robot WT-1R (Waseda Talker-No. 1 Refined) for the production of consonant sounds. In 2000, we mechanically produced Japanese vowels (/a/, /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/) using a first robot WT-1 (Waseda Talker-No. 1). In 2001, we developed a second robot WT-IR, which was improvement over WT-I's mechanisms for producing natural vowels and consonant sounds. WT-1R has articulators (the tongue, lips, teeth, nasal cavity and soft palate) and vocal organs (the lungs and vocal cords). The total DOF (degrees of freedom) is 15. Furthermore, we proposed the speech planning of WT-1R by considering the Complicated phenomena of consonant sound as three parts (steady consonant sound, transient consonant sound and vowel). WT-1R could mechanically produce Japanese vowels (/a/, /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/), some consonant sounds (/s/, /h/, /m/, /p/) and continuous sound/waseda/.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3361-3366
Number of pages6
JournalNippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu, C Hen/Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Part C
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Nov
Externally publishedYes


  • Humanoid Robot
  • Speech Production
  • Vocal Movement
  • Voice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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