This chapter provides a crosscutting, comprehensive analysis of the factors defining Japan’s international cooperation in education over its 65-year history. These factors are examined from seven perspectives: (1) engagement and collaboration with the international community; (2) influence of Japan’s own historical experience; (3) structure and implementation of Japan’s international cooperation and assistance; (4) principle of self-help efforts; (5) philosophy of hitozukuri (human resources development); (6) approaches of human security, peace, and sustainable development; and (7) formation of a community of experts and stakeholders to build expertise in international cooperation in education. This analysis yields three policy implications for Japan’s future international cooperation in education. Firstly, Japan’s recipient-centered cooperation approach should appropriately utilize the Japanese educational experience to meet the needs and development stages of the recipient country. Secondly, there are opportunities for engaging with a broader range of stakeholders in the implementation of Japanese international cooperation in education. Finally, Japan should actively participate in the global governance of education. By discussing the historical factors influencing the philosophy and characteristics of Japan’s international cooperation and assistance in education, this chapter aims to inform future directions of Japan’s educational aid initiatives.