Redundancy of olfactory sensory pathways for odor-aversion memory in the terrestrial slug Limax valentianus

Miki Yamagishi, Etsuro Ito, Ryota Matsuo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Terrestrial slugs have the ability to learn and remember a food odor paired with an aversive stimulus. Olfaction in slugs involves the tips of two pairs of tentacles, the superior and the inferior tentacles. Sensory nerves in both pairs of the tentacles transmit olfactory information to the structure in the CNS, the procerebrum where learning and memory formation occur. We investigated the role of each pair of tentacles in odor-aversion learning, and examined the ability of slugs to recall memory after selective surgical amputation. Our results show that memory formation was not altered by the amputation of either one of the pairs before or after odor-aversion learning, while the odor sensibility of the slugs was maintained. These data suggest that either pair of tentacles is sufficient for the acquisition and retrieval of aversive olfactory memory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1841-1849
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Jun
Externally publishedYes


  • Associative memory
  • Inferior tentacle
  • Limax
  • Odor-aversion learning
  • Superior tentacle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Physiology
  • Aquatic Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Insect Science


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