Reversible Sodium Metal Electrodes: Is Fluorine an Essential Interphasial Component?

Kyosuke Doi, Yuki Yamada, Masaki Okoshi, Junichi Ono, Chien Pin Chou, Hiromi Nakai, Atsuo Yamada*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Citations (Scopus)


Alkaline metals are an ideal negative electrode for rechargeable batteries. Forming a fluorine-rich interphase by a fluorinated electrolyte is recognized as key to utilizing lithium metal electrodes, and the same strategy is being applied to sodium metal electrodes. However, their reversible plating/stripping reactions have yet to be achieved. Herein, we report a contrary concept of fluorine-free electrolytes for sodium metal batteries. A sodium tetraphenylborate/monoglyme electrolyte enables reversible sodium plating/stripping at an average Coulombic efficiency of 99.85 % over 300 cycles. Importantly, the interphase is composed mainly of carbon, oxygen, and sodium elements with a negligible presence of fluorine, but it has both high stability and extremely low resistance. This work suggests a new direction for stabilizing sodium metal electrodes via fluorine-free interphases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8024-8028
Number of pages5
JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun 11


  • Batteries
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolytes
  • Fluorine
  • Sodium metal anodes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)


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