Role of Resource Circularity in Carbon Neutrality

Shinsuke Murakami, Kotaro Shimizu, Chiharu Tokoro, Takashi Nakamura*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


With the help of circular strategies, products can be used longer (i.e., reuse, repair, and refurbish). Products that are difficult to use will be recycled efficiently. The present paper provides actionable guidelines for reducing environmental impact at all stages of a product’s life cycle, including the manufacture and assembly of the materials that make up the product, environmental impacts during use, and environmental impacts at final disposal, as well as specific actions and evaluation mechanisms. The circular economy is a concept that encompasses specific actions and their evaluations. To clarify the contribution of this circular economy to carbon neutrality, the present paper highlights how it is important to recognize the role of carbon as both an energy carrier and a material. CO2 is a waste product from burning and powering carbon. CO2 must be disposed of like any other waste product, but carbon itself is also an energy carrier. Thus, when promoting the carbon cycle, it is important to harmonize carbon’s function as a material with its role as an energy carrier. The further introduction of renewable energy and societal shift towards circular economy would contribute to carbon neutrality and more resource efficient use in a mutually complementary manner.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16408
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec


  • circular economy
  • energy carrier
  • resource circularity
  • thermodynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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