Rubber hand illusion, empathy, and schizotypal experiences in terms of self-other representations

Tomohisa Asai*, Zhu Mao, Eriko Sugimori, Yoshihiko Tanno

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

91 Citations (Scopus)


When participants observed a rubber hand being touched, their sense of touch was activated (rubber hand illusion: RHI). While this illusion might be caused by multi-modal integration, it may also be related to empathic function, which enables us to simulate the observed information. We examined individual differences in the RHI, including empathic and schizotypal personality traits, as previous research had suggested that schizophrenic patients would be more subject to the RHI. The results indicated that people who experience a stronger RHI might have stronger empathic and schizotypal personalites simultaneously. We discussed these relationships in terms of self-other representations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1744-1750
Number of pages7
JournalConsciousness and Cognition
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Dec
Externally publishedYes


  • Empathic concern
  • Empathy
  • Hallucination
  • Rubber hand illusion (RHI)
  • Schizotypal personality (schizotypy)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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