Sclerotherapy for intractable ganglion cyst of the hallux

Yasuhito Tanaka*, Yoshinori Takakura, Tsukasa Kumai, Kazuya Sugimoto, Akira Taniguchi, Koji Hattori

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Background: We devised a method of sclerotherapy using OK432. The present study comprised a retrospective followup of sclerotherapy outcomes. Materials and Methods: Eighteen feet in 18 consecutive patients (seven men, 11 women; mean age, 55 years) were treated with sclerotherapy. Previous surgery had been performed one to four times for seven feet. After aspirating the contents of the ganglion cysts, 0.2 to 0.3 ml of suspension of OK432 (lyophilized strep pyogenes) was injected. The volume of fluid aspirated was from 0.2 to 2.5 ml, with an average of 0.9 ml. Mean duration of followup was 3 years 6 months. Clinical evaluation was performed using the AOFAS hallux scale. Results: All ganglion cysts disappeared after sclerotherapy. However, recurrences were observed in eight feet. Mean duration until recurrence was 13 months. Sclerotherapy was again performed for all patients with recurrence. Re-recurrence occurred in three feet. A third sclerotherapy was performed for all three patients. All ganglion cysts had disappeared by final followup. Mean AOFAS score improved from 75 points before therapy to 95 points at followup. Six patients had complications with local redness and pain for 1 to 6 days after injection. Conclusion: Sclerotherapy using OK432 is a minimally invasive treatment of symptomatic ganglion cysts of the hallux. Recurrence is common but complications are infrequent and self-limited.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)128-132
Number of pages5
JournalFoot and Ankle International
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Feb
Externally publishedYes


  • Ganglion
  • Hallux
  • OK432
  • Sclerotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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