Search for sub-GeV dark matter by annual modulation using XMASS-I detector

M. Kobayashi*, K. Abe, K. Hiraide, K. Ichimura, Y. Kishimoto, K. Kobayashi, S. Moriyama, M. Nakahata, H. Ogawa, K. Sato, H. Sekiya, T. Suzuki, A. Takeda, S. Tasaka, M. Yamashita, B. S. Yang, N. Y. Kim, Y. D. Kim, Y. Itow, K. KanzawaK. Masuda, K. Martens, Y. Suzuki, B. D. Xu, K. Miuchi, N. Oka, Y. Takeuchi, Y. H. Kim, K. B. Lee, M. K. Lee, Y. Fukuda, M. Miyasaka, K. Nishijima, K. Fushimi, G. Kanzaki, S. Nakamura

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


A search for dark matter (DM) with mass in the sub-GeV region (0.32–1 GeV) was conducted by looking for an annual modulation signal in XMASS, a single-phase liquid xenon detector. Inelastic nuclear scattering accompanied by bremsstrahlung emission was used to search down to an electron equivalent energy of 1 keV. The data used had a live time of 2.8 years (3.5 years in calendar time), resulting in a total exposure of 2.38 ton-years. No significant modulation signal was observed and 90% confidence level upper limits of 1.6×10−33 cm2 at 0.5 GeV was set for the DM-nucleon cross section. This is the first experimental result of a search for DM mediated by the bremsstrahlung effect. In addition, a search for DM with mass in the multi-GeV region (4–20 GeV) was conducted with a lower energy threshold than previous analysis of XMASS. Elastic nuclear scattering was used to search down to a nuclear recoil equivalent energy of 2.3 keV, and upper limits of 2.9 ×10−42 cm2 at 8 GeV was obtained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)308-313
Number of pages6
JournalPhysics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Aug 10
Externally publishedYes


  • Annual modulation
  • Liquid xenon
  • Sub-GeV dark matter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics


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