Short-Term Effects of Low-Fat Chocolate Milk on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness and Performance in Players on a Women’s University Badminton Team

Maryam Molaeikhaletabadi, Reza Bagheri, Mohammad Hemmatinafar*, Javad Nemati, Alexei Wong, Michael Nordvall, Maryam Namazifard, Katsuhiko Suzuki*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigated the short-term effects of low-fat chocolate milk (LFCM) consumption on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and performance in female badminton players. Seven female badminton players (23 ± 1 years; height: 163.8 ± 4.1 cm; body mass: 58.7 ± 0.9 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 week of LFCM (500 mL) or placebo (water, 500 mL) consumption in a crossover design. Participants consumed LFCM or water immediately after each training session during the 1-week intervention. Performance variables (aerobic power, anaerobic power, agility, explosive power, and maximum handgrip strength) were assessed at two separate time points: pre and post-intervention (after 1 week). In addition, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to assess DOMS before, immediately after, and at 24 and 48 h after each training session. There were significant time effects for aerobic power, upper body explosive power, minimum anaerobic power, and time to exhaustion (TTE), which significantly increased after LFCM consumption (p < 0.05). Moreover, relative and maximum lower body power significantly (p < 0.05) increased, while rating of perceived exertion (RPE) as well as DOMS in lower extremity muscles immediately after exercise significantly decreased after LFCM consumption compared to placebo (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in maximum anaerobic power, agility, and maximum handgrip strength (p > 0.05). LFCM, as a post-exercise beverage, may help speed recovery in female badminton players leading to increased aerobic, anaerobic, and strength performance indices, increased TTE, and decreased muscle soreness and RPE.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3677
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar 1


  • Aerobic performance
  • Anaerobic performance
  • Badminton players
  • Carbohydrate–protein beverage
  • Chocolate milk
  • DOMS
  • Post-exercise recovery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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