Side-Channel Fuzzy Analysis-Based AI Model Extraction Attack With Information-Theoretic Perspective in Intelligent IoT

Qianqian Pan, Jun Wu*, Ali Kashif Bashir, Jianhua Li, Jie Wu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Accessibility to smart devices provides opportunities for side-channel attacks (SCAs) on artificial intelligent (AI) models in the intelligent Internet of Things (IoT). However, the existing literature exposes some shortcomings: 1) incapability of quantifying and analyzing the leaked information through side channels of the intelligent IoT and 2) inability to devise efficient and accurate SCA algorithms. To address these challenges, we propose a side-channel fuzzy analysis-empowered AI model extraction attack in the intelligent IoT. First, the integrated AI model extraction framework is proposed, including power trace-based structure, execution time-based metaparameters, and hierarchical weight extractions. Then, we develop the information theory-based analysis for the AI model extraction via SCA. We derive a mutual information-enabled quantification method, theoretical lower/upper bounds of information leakage, and the minimum number of attack queries to obtain accurate weights. Furthermore, a fuzzy gray correlation-based multiple-microspace parallel SCA algorithm is proposed to extract model weights in the intelligent IoT. Based on the established information-theoretic analysis model, the proposed fuzzy gray correlation-based SCA algorithm obtains high-precision AI weights. Experimental results, consisting of simulation and real-world experiments, verify that the developed analysis method with the information-theoretic perspective is feasible and demonstrate that the designed fuzzy gray correlation-based SCA algorithm is effective for AI model extraction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4642-4656
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Nov 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Fuzzy analysis
  • information theory
  • intelligent Internet of Things (IoT)
  • model extraction
  • side-channel attacks (SCAs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Applied Mathematics


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