Slag foaming in smelting reduction processes

K. Ito*, Richard J. Fruehan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


In order to understand the effect of slag composition on foaming in the smelting reduction process, slag foaming was quantitatively studied for CaO-SiO2-FeO slags in the temperature range of 1250-1400 °C. It was found that slag foaming could be characterized by a foaming index Σ which is equal to the retention or travelling time of the gas in the slag and by the foam life. The effects of P2O5, S, MgO, and CaF2 on foaming were studied. As expected, slag foaming increased with increasing viscosity and decreasing surface tension. The results were extrapolated to the bath smelting process to predict the foam height. Slag foaming heights as high as 3-5 meters are predicted for a typical operation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)151-156
Number of pages6
JournalSteel Research
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 1989 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Metals and Alloys


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