Small-Scale Human Impact Anthropomorphic Test Device Using the Similarity Rule

Satoshi Miura*, Souhei Takahashi, Victor Parque, Tomoyuki Miyashita

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) are useful for simulating human damage during traffic accidents. For large accidents such as train accidents, experiments using full-size ATDs are not feasible because of cost, space, and time requirements. However, it is difficult to develop small-scale ATDs because changes in geometry are not necessarily accompanied by commensurate changes in mass or force. In this study, we designed and developed small-scale human dummies using the similarity rule. We determined the similarity ratio and focused on the neck, chest, and abdomen, which are important for protecting organs and nerves. Drop, impact, and sled tests based on ISO TR9790 indicators were used to evaluate the ATD. The first ATD scored 4.69, which indicates 'fair biofidelity'; the neck and chest delivered low scores during the sled and impact tests, respectively. We simulated the behavior of the ATD using finite element analysis; the experimental and analytical values were consistent. We modified the neck and chest parameters using simulation results and evaluated the optimized ATD using impact and sled tests. The optimized ATD scored a 6.56, which indicates 'good biofidelity.' In conclusion, we developed a small-scale ATD capable of satisfactorily simulating human behavior. Using the proposed ATD, we can reduce the opportunities for full-scale experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9126238
Pages (from-to)7188-7198
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Aug


  • Anthropomorphic test device (ATD)
  • biomechanics
  • dummy model
  • ergonomics
  • human body simulator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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