In the introductory chapters, we have discussed various causes that can create damages in pipelines. These include chemical and stress corrosion, sudden variation in gravity and thermal loading, flow-induced vibration, impact damage at the pipe joints. We have also discussed how different sensors can be used for sensing these damages. Optical and Laser Scanning, Magnetic Flux Leakage Analysis, Microwave and Ultrasonic Sensing are some of the techniques discussed in the overview. However, most of the above-mentioned sensors generate high density of data creating challenges for data storage as well communication. Smart material-based sensors like PVDF sensing are more advantageous in such cases. PVDF sensor is developed from a subset of polymeric piezoelectric material; the nature and constitutive relationship of such smart materials are discussed at length in the earlier chapter. In this chapter, we will more focus on the use of such smart materials in developing structural health monitoring (SHM) System. As a background to this discussion, it will be important for us to briefly review the concept and scope of SHM.