Soft-X-ray damage to biological samples

H. Fujisaki*, S. Takahashi, H. Ohzeki, K. Sugisaki, H. Kondo, H. Nagata, H. Kato, S. Ishiwata

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    10 Citations (Scopus)


    X-ray damage to biological samples was investigated in the wavelength region of 2.7-5 nm, which overlaps the so-called 'water window', the wavelength range of 2.4- 4.3 nm usually used in X-ray microscopy. Yeast cells and myofibrils were chosen as representatives of whole cell samples and motile protein systems, respectively. The samples were exposed to X-rays using an apparatus composed mainly of a laser-plasma X-ray source, a Welter mirror condenser, and a sample cell. The yeast cells lost their dye exclusion ability when the X-ray flux was higher than 1 x 106 photons μm-2, while the myofibrils lost contractility when the X-ray flux was higher than 4 x 105 photons μm-2. These X-ray fluxes are lower than the nux required for the X-ray microscope observation of biological samples at. a resolution higher than that of light microscopes.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)79-83
    Number of pages5
    JournalJournal of Microscopy
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 1996


    • Myofibril
    • Soft X-ray
    • Soft-X-ray damage
    • Water window
    • X-ray
    • X-ray damage
    • X-ray microscope
    • Yeast

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Instrumentation


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