Sphere-filled organ model for virtual surgery system

Shigeyuki Suzuki*, Naoki Suzuki, Asaki Hattori, Akihiko Uchiyama, Susumu Kobayashi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


We have been developing a virtual surgery system that is capable of simulating surgical maneuvers on elastic organs. In order to perform such maneuvers, we have created a deformable organ model using a sphere-filled method instead of the finite element method. This model is suited for real-time simulation and quantitative deformation. Furthermore, we have equipped this model with a sense of touch and a sense of force by connecting it to a force feedback device. However, in the initial stage the model became problematic when faced with complicated incisions. Therefore, we modified this model by developing an algorithm for organ deformation that performs various, complicated incisions while taking into account the effect of gravity. As a result, the sphere-filled model allowed our system to respond to various incisions that deform the organ. Thus, various physical manipulations that involve pressing, pinching, or incising an organ's surface can be performed. Furthermore, the deformation of the internal organ structures and changes in organ vasculature can be observed via the internal spheres' behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)714-722
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Jun
Externally publishedYes


  • Elastic organ
  • Real-time imaging
  • Sphere-filled model
  • Surgical simulation
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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