Sponsoring many or few sports properties? Moderated mediation effect of perceived sponsor ubiquity depending on sponsor–property fit

Taeahn Kang*, Hirotaka Matsuoka

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: This study aims to examine the effect of the perceived sponsor ubiquity on sponsor favorability via perceived sponsor sincerity and the moderating effect of perceived sponsor–property fit. Design/methodology/approach: Two studies via a questionnaire survey of spectators attending a Japanese professional basketball game were conducted, and Hayes’ PROCESS macro was used for data analyses. Study 1 (n = 134) assessed how perceived sponsor ubiquity affected sponsor favorability via perceived sponsor sincerity. Study 2 (n = 206) examined a moderated mediation model incorporating a perceived sponsor–property fit. Findings: In Studies 1 and 2, spectators perceiving a higher degree of sponsor ubiquity reported a lower degree of sponsor sincerity compared with those perceiving a lower degree of sponsor ubiquity and less favorability toward sponsors. In Study 2, the less positive effect of highly perceived ubiquity was weakened when spectators perceived a higher degree of sponsor–property fit. Practical implications: The findings provided sponsors with insights into effectively communicating perceived ubiquity and perceived sponsor–property fit. Hence, sponsors must be careful about their ubiquitous sponsorships, as their engagement in each property can be perceived as less distinctive among consumers. Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to highlight the mediating mechanism of perceived insincerity between perceived ubiquity and favorability toward sponsors. Furthermore, evidence that fit acted as a moderator on perceived ubiquity–outcome relationships extended previous studies mainly treating fit as a direct antecedent of sponsor response.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)774-787
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Business and Industrial Marketing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Feb 15


  • Covariation theory
  • Fit
  • Motive attribution
  • Sincerity
  • Sponsorship
  • Ubiquity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Marketing


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