Spray Pyrolyzed TiO2 Embedded Multi-Layer Front Contact Design for High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells

Md Shahiduzzaman*, Mohammad Ismail Hossain, Sem Visal, Tetsuya Kaneko, Wayesh Qarony, Shinjiro Umezu, Koji Tomita, Satoru Iwamori, Dietmar Knipp, Yuen Hong Tsang, Md Akhtaruzzaman*, Jean Michel Nunzi, Tetsuya Taima, Masao Isomura*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


The photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) can be improved by utilizing efficient front contact. However, it has always been a significant challenge for fabricating high-quality, scalable, controllable, and cost-effective front contact. This study proposes a realistic multi-layer front contact design to realize efficient single-junction PSCs and perovskite/perovskite tandem solar cells (TSCs). As a critical part of the front contact, we prepared a highly compact titanium oxide (TiO2) film by industrially viable Spray Pyrolysis Deposition (SPD), which acts as a potential electron transport layer (ETL) for the fabrication of PSCs. Optimization and reproducibility of the TiO2 ETL were discreetly investigated while fabricating a set of planar PSCs. As the front contact has a significant influence on the optoelectronic properties of PSCs, hence, we investigated the optics and electrical effects of PSCs by three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and finite element method (FEM) rigorous simulations. The investigation allows us to compare experimental results with the outcome from simulations. Furthermore, an optimized single-junction PSC is designed to enhance the energy conversion efficiency (ECE) by > 30% compared to the planar reference PSC. Finally, the study has been progressed to the realization of all-perovskite TSC that can reach the ECE, exceeding 30%. Detailed guidance for the completion of high-performance PSCs is provided.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Article number36
JournalNano-Micro Letters
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jan


  • Electrical characteristic
  • Optics and optimization
  • Perovskite
  • Spray pyrolysis deposition
  • Tandem solar cells
  • TiO compact layer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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