Squeezed and Released Self: Using a Squeeze Machine to Degrade the Peri-Personal Space (PPS) Boundary

Mai Minoura*, Iori Tani, Takahiro Ishii, Yukio Pegio Gunji

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The squeeze machine is a V-shaped device that applies pressure to the user’s entire body to encourage relaxation, especially in individuals with autism. Thus far, this device has only been used for therapy; however, by experiencing the balance of “to squeeze” and “to be squeezed” throughout the body, the transformation of the user’s bodily self-consciousness can be expected. Here, we estimated these changes by measuring the peri-personal space (PPS) using a preestablished cross-modal (auditory and tactile) task in neurotypical adults. As a result, the PPS boundary, which was clear in the control condition, was degraded during the squeeze machine experience, even though participants subjectively reported no difference in their impressions of the auditory stimuli between the two conditions. This result points to the modification of the implicit relationship between the self and the external world in terms of the PPS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)248-257
Number of pages10
JournalPsychology of Consciousness: Theory Research, and Practice
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • bodily self-consciousness
  • cross-modal task
  • full-body experience
  • peripersonal space
  • squeeze machine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology


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