ST and ALE-VMS methods for patient-specific cardiovascular fluid mechanics modeling

Kenji Takizawa, Yuri Bazilevs, Tayfun E. Tezduyar, Christopher C. Long, Alison L. Marsden, Kathleen Schjodt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

102 Citations (Scopus)


This paper provides a review of the space-time (ST) and Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques developed by the first three authors' research teams for patient-specific cardiovascular fluid mechanics modeling, including fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The core methods are the ALE-based variational multiscale (ALE-VMS) method, the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized ST formulation, and the stabilized ST FSI technique. A good number of special techniques targeting cardiovascular fluid mechanics have been developed to be used with the core methods. These include: (i) arterial-surface extraction and boundary condition techniques, (ii) techniques for using variable arterial wall thickness, (iii) methods for calculating an estimated zero-pressure arterial geometry, (iv) techniques for prestressing of the blood vessel wall, (v) mesh generation techniques for building layers of refined fluid mechanics mesh near the arterial walls, (vi) a special mapping technique for specifying the velocity profile at an inflow boundary with non-circular shape, (vii) a scaling technique for specifying a more realistic volumetric flow rate, (viii) techniques for the projection of fluid-structure interface stresses, (ix) a recipe for pre-FSI computations that improve the convergence of the FSI computations, (x) the Sequentially-Coupled Arterial FSI technique and its multiscale versions, (xi) techniques for calculation of the wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI), (xii) methods for stent modeling and mesh generation, (xiii) methods for calculation of the particle residence time, and (xiv) methods for an estimated element-based zero-stress state for the artery. Here we provide an overview of the special techniques for WSS and OSI calculations, stent modeling and mesh generation, and calculation of the residence time with application to pulsatile ventricular assist device (PVAD). We provide references for some of the other special techniques. With results from earlier computations, we show how these core and special techniques work.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2437-2486
Number of pages50
JournalMathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Nov


  • ALE methods
  • Cardiovascular fluid mechanics
  • ST methods
  • cerebral aneurysms
  • fluid-structure interaction
  • pulsatile ventricular assist devices
  • special techniques
  • stents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Applied Mathematics


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