Stimulus-Preceding Negativity (SPN) and Attention to Rewards

Steven A. Hackley*, Fernando Valle-Inclán, Hiroaki Masaki, Karen Hebert

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

14 Citations (Scopus)


Investigation of the reward system by means of noninvasive electrophysiological methods has focused on the feedback-related negativity and probe startle. These measure index processing that occurs when the outcome of an action is better or worse than expected. According to evidence reviewed in the present paper, that expectation is reflected in an electrophysiological measure, the stimulus-preceding negativity. This slow wave crescendos in amplitude as receipt of performance feedback and monetary reward or penalty draws near. Comparisons with functional magnetic resonance imaging data have identified a number of likely sources, including the anterior insula and parietal cortices. The relation to sensory attention, dopaminergic disorders, instrumental learning and other functional properties are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCognitive Electrophysiology of Attention
Subtitle of host publicationSignals of the Mind
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)9780123984517
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Oct


  • Attention
  • Dopamine
  • Event-related potentials
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Rewards
  • Stimulus-preceding negativity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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