Swarm chemistry

Hiroki Sayama*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Citations (Scopus)


We propose swarm chemistry, a new artificial chemistry framework that uses artificial swarm populations as chemical reactants. Reaction in swarm chemistry is not determined by predefined reaction rules as commonly assumed in typical artificial chemistry studies, but is spontaneously achieved by the emergence of a new spatiotemporal pattern of collective behavior through the kinetic interaction between multiple chemical species. We developed a prototype of an interactive simulation tool with which one can explore the dynamics of swarm chemistry using an interactive evolutionary method. Several preliminary results are reported to illustrate the characteristics and effectiveness of this framework, including spontaneous segregation of distinct chemical species, production and restriction of movements, and interactive design of complex biological-looking structures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-114
Number of pages10
JournalArtificial Life
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Artificial chemistry
  • Interactive evolutionary method
  • Kinetic interaction
  • Pattern formation
  • Self-organization
  • Swarm behavior

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Artificial Intelligence


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