Ten years progress of electrical detection of heavy metal ions (Hmis) using various field-effect transistor (fet) nanosensors: A review

Shaili Falina, Mohd Syamsul*, Nuha Abd Rhaffor, Sofiyah Sal Hamid, Khairu Anuar Mohamed Zain, Asrulnizam Abd Manaf, Hiroshi Kawarada

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Heavy metal pollution remains a major concern for the public today, in line with the growing population and global industrialization. Heavy metal ion (HMI) is a threat to human and environmental safety, even at low concentrations, thus rapid and continuous HMI monitoring is essential. Among the sensors available for HMI detection, the field-effect transistor (FET) sensor demonstrates promising potential for fast and real-time detection. The aim of this review is to provide a condensed overview of the contribution of certain semiconductor substrates in the development of chemical and biosensor FETs for HMI detection in the past decade. A brief introduction of the FET sensor along with its construction and configuration is presented in the first part of this review. Subsequently, the FET sensor deployment issue and FET intrinsic limitation screening effect are also discussed, and the solutions to overcome these shortcomings are summarized. Later, we summarize the strategies for HMIs’ electrical detection, mechanisms, and sensing performance on nanomaterial semiconductor FET transducers, including silicon, carbon nanotubes, graphene, AlGaN/GaN, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD), black phosphorus, organic and inorganic semiconductor. Finally, concerns and suggestions regarding detection in the real samples using FET sensors are highlighted in the conclusion.

Original languageEnglish
Article number478
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec


  • Chemiresistor
  • Debye length
  • Electrical detection
  • Field-effect transistor
  • HEMT
  • Heavy metal ions
  • Nano-materials
  • Screening effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biotechnology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Biochemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Ten years progress of electrical detection of heavy metal ions (Hmis) using various field-effect transistor (fet) nanosensors: A review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this