The alpine-Alma [c ii] survey: Kinematic diversity and rotation in massive star-forming galaxies at z ~ 4.4-5.9

G. C. Jones, D. Vergani, M. Romano, M. Ginolfi, Y. Fudamoto, M. Béthermin, S. Fujimoto, B. C. Lemaux, L. Morselli, P. Capak, P. Cassata, A. Faisst, O. Le Fèvre, D. Schaerer, J. D. Silverman, Lin Yan, M. Boquien, A. Cimatti, M. Dessauges-Zavadsky, E. IbarR. Maiolino, F. Rizzo, M. Talia, G. Zamorani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


While the kinematics of galaxies up to z ∼3 have been characterized in detail, only a handful of galaxies at high redshift (z > 4) have been examined in such a way. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Large Program to INvestigate [C ii] at Early times (ALPINE) survey observed a statistically significant sample of 118 star-forming main-sequence galaxies at z = 4.4-5.9 in [C ii]158 $\mu$m emission, increasing the number of such observations by nearly 10×. A preliminary qualitative classification of these sources revealed a diversity of kinematic types (i.e. rotators, mergers, and dispersion-dominated systems). In this work, we supplement the initial classification by applying quantitative analyses to the ALPINE data: A tilted ring model (TRM) fitting code (3Dbarolo), a morphological classification (Gini-M20), and a set of disc identification criteria. Of the 75 [C ii]-detected ALPINE galaxies, 29 are detected at sufficient significance and spatial resolution to allow for TRM fitting and the derivation of morphological and kinematic parameters. These 29 sources constitute a high-mass subset of the ALPINE sample ($M∗\gt 10^{9.5}\, \mathrm{M}{\odot }$). We robustly classify 14 of these sources (six rotators, five mergers, and three dispersion-dominated systems); the remaining sources showing complex behaviour. By exploring the G-M20 of z > 4 rest-frame far-infrared and [C ii] data for the first time, we find that our 1 arcsec ∼6 kpc resolution data alone are insufficient to separate galaxy types. We compare the rotation curves and dynamical mass profiles of the six ALPINE rotators to the two previously detected z ∼4-6 unlensed main-sequence rotators, finding high rotational velocities (∼50-250 km s-1) and a diversity of rotation curve shapes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3540-3563
Number of pages24
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Nov 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Galaxies: Evolution
  • Galaxies: High-redshift
  • Galaxies: Kinematics and dynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


Dive into the research topics of 'The alpine-Alma [c ii] survey: Kinematic diversity and rotation in massive star-forming galaxies at z ~ 4.4-5.9'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this